Translations

the `Translate` class indicates that a code block will contain translation exercises that require symbolizing natural language sentences.

Propositional Logic

You can create propositional logic translation problems by also adding the class `Prop`, like so:

``````~~~{.Translate .Prop}
3.1 P/\Q : People want to know what's going on and questions are unavoidable
~~~``````

The number 3.1 indicates the exercise number, and the colon separates the solution from the text that will be presented for translation. The result of the above is:

3.1
People want to know what's going on and questions are unavoidable

To complete it, replace the text to the left of the submit solution button with your translation, press return to check, and then press "Submit Solution". Propositional translations are considered correct if they are logically equivalent to the original answer. So for example, `Q/\P` will be accepted above.

First-Order Translation

It is also possible to create first-order translation problems using the class `FOL`, thus:

``````~~~{.Translate .FOL}
3.2 AxF(x) : Everything is fine
~~~``````

with the result:

3.2
Everything is fine

These are completed as above. Equivalence of first-order sentences is undecidable, so we can't check it, but we can catch most cases of "equivalent" translations by using some rewriting rules.1 So, for example `~Ex~F(x)` will be accepted above.

Multiple Solutions

If you wish to allow students to find one translation of a sentence that admits several formalizations, you can use a comma-separated list of admissible solutions. So,

``````~~~{.Translate .FOL}
3.5 (P /\ Q) \/ R, P/\(Q\/R) : Jack jumped the fence and was caught by the watchman or got away.
~~~``````

generates

3.5
Jack jumped the fence and was caught by the watchman or got away.

Options and Attributes

In addition to allowing for custom point values with `points=VALUE`, and turning off submission with `submission="none"`, translations also have the following options

Name Effect
`nocheck` Disables checking solutions
`exam` Allows for submission of work which is incomplete or incorrect

These can be included in the space separated list supplied to the `options` attribute.

The way that formulas are parsed can also be customized. This is done by setting the `system` attribute to indicate which formal system you are drawing your syntax from. So for example,

``````~~~{.Translate .FOL system="magnusQL"}
3.5 AxBx : Everything is bananas
~~~``````

will generate:

3.5
Everything is bananas

For first-order translations, the available systems are: `firstOrder` `montagueQC` `magnusQL` `thomasBolducAndZachFOL` `thomasBolducAndZachFOL2019` `LogicBookPD` `LogicBookPDPlus` `hausmanPL` `howardSnyderPL` `ichikawaJenkinsQL` `hardegreePL` `goldfarbAltND` `goldfarbNDPlus` and `goldfarbAltNDPlus`. For propositional translations, the available systems are: `prop` `montagueSC` `LogicBookSD` `LogicBookSDPlus` `hausmanSL` `howardSnyderSL` `ichikawaJenkinsSL` `hausmanSL` `magnusSL` `magnusSLPlus` `thomasBolducAndZachTFL` `thomasBolducAndZachTFL2019` `tomassiPL` and `hardegreeSL`.

Finally, you can impose one or more extra tests on a translation. This is done by setting the `tests` attribute to indicate which tests you wish to require the translation to pass. The available tests for propositional translations are

Name Effect
`CNF` Requires conjunctive normal form
`DNF` Requires disjunctive normal form
`maxCon:N` Requires that the translation contain N or fewer connectives
`maxNot:N` Requires that the translation contain N or fewer negations
`maxAnd:N` Requires that the translation contain N or fewer conjunctions
`maxIff:N` Requires that the translation contain N or fewer biconditionals
`maxIf:N` Requires that the translation contain N or fewer conditionals
`maxOr:N` Requires that the translation contain N or fewer disjunctions
`maxFalse:N` Requires that the translation contain N or fewer falsity constants
`maxAtom:N` Requires that the translation contain N or fewer atomic sentences

The available tests for first-order translations are all the propositional tests, plus:

Name Effect
`PNF` Requires prenex normal form

When using multiple tests, their names must be separated by spaces, so for example,

``````~~~{.Translate .FOL tests="PNF maxNeg:0"}
3.6 ~Ex~F(x) : Nothing is not bananas.
~~~``````

will generate:

3.6
Nothing is not bananas.

Partial Solutions

It's possible to include a partial solution to a translation problem, by including the partial solution after a `|` following the problem. So for example,

``````~~~{.Translate .FOL options="nocheck"}
3.7 AxF(x) : Everything is fine
| For all x, x is fine
~~~``````

Generates

3.7
For all x, x is fine

1. the procedure is roughly as follows:

1. using the standard rules of passage, drive quantifiers in as far as possible in both the submitted solution S0, and in the target sentence T0, generating two result sentences S1,T1
2. using the standard rules of passage, pull out quantifiers as far as possible, in every possible way, generating a set S2 of sentences from S1, and a set of sentences T2 from T1
3. allowing permutation of quantifiers within blocks, look for pairs of sentences (S3, T3) with matching quantifier prefixes. Canonically rename the variables. Check the matricies of the resulting formulas for propositional equivalence.