# Practice Problems: Proofs for FOL

The following are some practice problems on natural deduction proofs
for FOL; i.e., they cover Part VII of *forall x: Calgary*.

When writing sentences of TFL, remember you can use the following ways to enter connectives that are easier to do with a keyboard:

not ¬ | `-` , `~` , `not` |

and ∧ | `/\` , `&` , `and` |

or ∨ | `\/` , `|` , `or` |

if then → | `->` , `>` , `only if` |

if and only if ↔︎ | `<->` , `<>` , `if and only if` |

contradiction ⊥ | `!?` , `_|_` |

universal quantifier ∀ | `A` , `@` |

existential quantifier ∃ | `E` , `3` |

## The rules for ∀

To justify a sentence of the form ∀𝓍 𝒜(𝓍), you need
𝒜(𝒸), say with line number *m*. Then write as
justification "AI *m*" (replacing *m* with the actual line number, of
course). The name 𝒸 *cannot* occur in ∀𝓍 𝒜(𝓍) or in any premise or assumption
open on line *m*.

You can use ∀𝓍 𝒜(𝓍) to justify
𝒜(𝒶) (for any name 𝒶, even if it
appears in a premise or open assumption). If you have justified
∀𝓍 𝒜(𝓍) on line numer *n*,
write "AE *n*" next to 𝒜(𝒶) as the
justification.

Here's a simple proof that shows that you can rename variables. Fill in the missing justifications:

You can combine the rules for ∀ with the rules for the connectives of TFL.

## The rules for ∃

To justify a sentence of the form ∃𝓍 𝒜(𝓍), you need
𝒜(𝒶), say with line number *m*. Then write as
justification "EI *m*" (replacing *m* with the actual line number, of
course). The name 𝒸 *can* ∃𝓍 𝒜(𝓍) and in any premise or
assumption open on line *m*.

You can use ∃𝓍 𝒜(𝓍) to justify ℬ (for any sentence ℬ, if you can complete a subproof which:

- ends with ℬ,
- starts with 𝒜(𝒸), and where
- 𝒸 only occurs in that subproof, but not in ℬ.

If you have ∃𝓍 𝒜(𝓍) on line
numer *n*, and your subproof is on lines *k*-*l*, write "EE *n*,
*k*-*l*" next to ℬ (after the subproof) as the
justification.

Here's a simple proof that shows that you can rename variables. Fill in the missing justifications:

# Practice problems without quantifier nesting

Here are the two examples from Chapter 33. Try to complete them without looking at the book:

Here are the two examples from Chapter 36. Again, try them before looking up the solution:

Here are exercises from Problem A from Chapter 33:

Problem C contains harder examples; they all require IP.

These are the two problems from Chapter 36. The first one's easy, the second one hard.

## Proofs with quantifier nesting

## Proofs with identity

"Everyone loves my baby, but my baby loves noone but me"

"There is exactly one hero" has two different symbolizations. Let's prove they are quivalent.

If there is at least one P, and no more than one, there is exactly one.

## A proof box for you to play in!

Want to use Carnap to construct and check an arbitrary proof? You can do that in this "playground" proof editor. Use it for any of the exercises from Part VII in the book, for instance. (It should accept derived rules, too.)