Natural deduction in the original forall x systems

This document gives a short description of how Carnap presents the systems of natural deduction from P.D. Magnus' forall x. At least some prior familiarity with Fitch-style proof systems is assumed.

There are several alternate versions (remixes) of forall x, which use slightly different syntax and/or rules. The versions supported by Carnap are:

Notation

The different admissible keyboard abbreviations for the different connectives are as follows:

Connective Keyboard
->, =>,>
& /\, &, and
\/, |, or
↔︎ <->, <=>
¬ -, ~, not

The available sentence letters are A through Z, together with the infinitely many subscripted letters P1, P2, … written P_1, P_2 and so on.

Proofs consist of a series of lines. A line is either an assertion line containing a formula followed by a : and then a justification for that formula, or a separator line containing two dashes, thus: --. A justification consists of a rule abbreviation followed by zero or more numbers (citations of particular lines) and pairs of numbers separated by a dash (citations of a subproof contained within the given line range).

A subproof is begun by increasing the indentation level. The first line of a subproof should be more indented than the containing proof, and the lines directly contained in this subproof should maintain this indentation level. (Lines indirectly contained, by being part of a sub-sub-proof, will need to be indented more deeply.) The subproof ends when the indentation level of the containing proof is resumed; hence, two contiguous sub-proofs of the same containing proof can be distinguished from one another by inserting a separator line between them at the same level of indentation as the containing proof. The final unindented line of a derivation will serve as the conclusion of the entire derivation.

Here's an example derivation, using system SL of P.D. Magnus forall x, activated in Carnap by .ForallxSL:

Ex
A \/ B:AS A:AS B \/ A:\/I 2 -- B:AS B \/ A:\/I 5 B \/ A:\/E 1,2-3,5-6 (A \/ B) -> (B \/ A):->I 1-7

Or, with a Fitch-style guides overlay (activated with guides="fitch"):

Playground
A \/ B:AS A:AS B \/ A:\/I 2 -- B:AS B \/ A:\/I 5 B \/ A:\/E 1,2-3,5-6 (A \/ B) -> (B \/ A):->I 1-7

There is also a playground mode:

Playground

Sentential logic

forall x System SL

The minimal system SL for P.D. Magnus' forall x (the system used in a proofchecker constructed with .ForallxSL in Carnap's Pandoc Markup) has the following set of rules for direct inferences:

Rule Abbreviation Premises Conclusion
And-Elim ∧E φ ∧ ψ φ/ψ
And-Intro ∧I φ, ψ φ ∧ ψ
Or-Elim ∨E ¬ψ, φ ∨ ψ φ
¬φ, φ ∨ ψ ψ
Or-Intro ∨I φ φ ∨ ψ
ψ φ ∨ ψ
Conditional-Elim →E φ, φ → ψ ψ
Biconditional-Elim ↔︎E φ, φ ↔︎ ψ ψ
ψ, φ ↔︎ ψ φ
Reiteration R φ φ

We also have four rules for indirect inferences:

  1. →I, which justifies an assertion of the form φ → ψ by citing a subproof beginning with the assumption φ and ending with the conclusion ψ;
  2. ↔︎I, which justifies an assertion of the form φ↔︎ψ by citing two subproofs, beginning with assuptions φ, ψ, respectively, and ending with conclusions ψ, φ, respectively;
  3. ¬I, which justifies an assertion of the form ¬φ by citing a subproof beginning with the assumption φ and ending with a pair of lines ψ,¬ψ.
  4. ¬E, which justifies an assertion of the form φ by citing a subproof beginning with the assumption ¬φ and ending with a pair of lines ψ,¬ψ.

Finally, PR can be used to justify a line asserting a premise, and AS can be used to justify a line making an assumption. A note about the reason for an assumption can be included in the rendered proof by writing A/NOTETEXTHERE rather than AS for an assumption. Assumptions are only allowed on the first line of a subproof.

forall x System SL Plus

The extended system SL Plus for P.D. Magnus' forall x (the system used in a proofchecker constructed with .ForallxSLPlus in Carnap's Pandoc Markup) also adds the following rules:

Rule Abbreviation Premises Conclusion
Dilemma DIL φ ∨ ψ, φ → χ, ψ → χ χ
Hypothetical Syllogism HS φ → ψ, ψ → χ φ → χ
Modus Tollens MT φ → ψ, ¬ψ ¬φ

As well as the following exchange rules, which can be used within a propositional context Φ:

Rule Abbreviation Premises Conclusion
Commutativity Comm Φ(φ ∧ ψ) Φ(ψ ∧ φ)
Φ(φ ∨ ψ) Φ(ψ ∨ φ)
Φ(φ ↔︎ ψ) Φ(ψ ↔︎ φ)
Double Negation DN Φ(φ)/Φ(¬¬φ) Φ(¬¬φ)/Φ(φ)
Material Conditional MC Φ(φ → ψ) Φφ ∨ ψ)
Φφ ∨ ψ) Φ(φ → ψ)
Φ(φ ∨ ψ) Φφ → ψ)
Φφ → ψ) Φ(φ ∨ ψ)
BiConditional Exchange ↔︎ex Φ(φ ↔︎ ψ) Φ(φ → ψ ∧ ψ → φ)
Φ(φ → ψ ∧ ψ → φ) Φ(φ ↔︎ ψ)
DeMorgan's Laws DeM Φ(¬(φ ∧ ψ)) Φφ ∨ ¬ψ)
Φ(¬(φ ∨ ψ)) Φφ ∧ ¬ψ)
Φφ ∨ ¬ψ) Φ(¬(φ ∧ ψ))
Φφ ∧ ¬ψ) Φ(¬(φ ∨ ψ))

Quantificational logic

The proof system for Magnus's forall x, QL, is activated using .ForallxQL.

Notation

The different admissible keyboard abbreviations for quantifiers and equality is as follows:

Connective Keyboard
A
E
= =

The forall x first-order systems do not contain sentence letters.

Application of a relation symbol is indicated by directly appending the arguments to the symbol.

The available relation symbols are A through Z, together with the infinitely many subscripted letters F1, F2, … written `F1, F2. The arity of a relation symbol is determined from context.

The available constants are a through w, with the infinitely many subscripted letters c1, c2, … written c_1, c_2,….

The available variables are x through z, with the infinitely many subscripted letters x1, x2, … written x_1, x_2,….

Basic Rules

The first-order forall x systems QL (the systems used in proofcheckers constructed with .ForallxQL) extend the rules of the system SL with the following set of new basic rules:

Rule Abbreviation Premises Conclusion
Existential Introduction ∃I φ(σ) xφ(x)
Universal Elimination ∀E xφ(x) φ(σ)
Universal Introduction ∀E φ(σ) xφ(x)
Equality Introduction =I σ = σ
Equality Elimination =E σ = τ, φ(σ)/φ(τ) φ(τ)/φ(σ)

Where Universal Introduction is subject to the restriction that σ must not appear in φ(x), or any undischarged assumption or in any premise of the proof.1

It also adds one new rule for indirect derivations: ∃E, which justifies an assertion ψ by citing an assertion of the form xφ(x) and a subproof beginning with the assumption φ(σ) and ending with the conclusion ψ, where σ does not appear in ψ, ∃xφ(x), or in any of the undischarged assumptions or premises of the proof.

forall x QL Plus

The system QL Plus, activated with .ForallxQLPlus, includes all the rules of SL Plus, as well as the following exchange rules, which can be used within a context Φ:

Rule Abbreviation Premises Conclusion
Quantifier Negation QN Φ(∀x¬φ(x))) Φ(¬∃xφ(x)))
Φ(¬∀xφ(x))) Φ(∃x¬φ(x)))
Φ(∃x¬φ(x))) Φ(¬∀xφ(x)))
Φ(¬∃xφ(x))) Φ(∀x¬φ(x)))

  1. Technically, Carnap checks only the assumptions and premises that are used in the derivation of φ(σ). This has the same effect in terms of what's derivable, but is a little more lenient.↩︎